BURSERA SCHLECHTENDALII PDF
February 7, 2021 | by admin
EEB Greenhouse Accession Data for Bursera schlechtendalii. Bursera schlechtendalii is a species of plants with 32 observations. Brief summary. No one has contributed a brief summary to this page yet. Explore what EOL knows about Bursera schlechtendalii. Add a brief summary to this.
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The antipredatory defense of beetles of the genus Blepharida corresponds to the defenses of the Bursera species they feed on. Retrieved from ” https: These include structures such as spines, trichomes, and hard, very sticky, or smooth schpechtendalii. The chemical mixture of the non-squirting Bursera biflora is less volatile, more diverse, and more complex than the one of Bursera schlechtendalii. Citing articles via Google Scholar. Therefore, highly schlechhtendalii Bursera species tend to have highly volatile mixtures, while the mixtures of non-squirting species are less volatile.
The dogbane beetle Chrysochus auratus that feeds on Apocynum cannabinum Apocinaceae hursera a channel that transects major veins adjacent to the leaf margin. Producing mixtures with more individual compounds requires production of more specific enzymes. SUMMARY It is apparent that an interaction exists between the chemical and the mechanical components of the squirt gun defense in Burserawhich has resulted in some species having powerful squirts but simple chemistry.
Biodiversity of Costa Rica
The chemical analyses of the body and frass of Blepharida flavocostata revealed almost no match to the constituents found in B. Squirting species tend to busrera highly volatile and simple mixtures composed mostly of one or two simple monoterpenes, while non-squirting species have heavier and more complex mixtures.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bursera linanoe Bursefa Llave Rzed. The genus is notable for its terpenoid secretions and exudates that arise from a system dchlechtendalii arborescent resin canals Becerra and Venable, ; Becerra, a. It is apparent that an interaction exists between the chemical and the mechanical components of the squirt gun defense in Burserawhich has resulted in some species having powerful squirts but simple chemistry. Cluster 1 consists mostly of species that release abundant resins when injured, often in the form of a squirt.
We also analyzed leaves of the non-squirting Bursera biflora and larvae and feces of its herbivore Blepharida flavocostatan Table 3.
Some species of Bursera also produce very simple resins consisting primarily of one or two simple monoterpenes. Also, simple compounds often require fewer steps, which decreases their substrate and cofactor costs. In large quantities secretions schlechtemdalii also kill small insects by asphyxiation or complete entrapment Dussourd and Denno, ; Becerra, a. Percentage of monoterpene compounds found in five squirting Bursera species black bars and four non-squirting ones white bars.
Yet, this does budsera explain why only one or two monoterpenes dominate the mixture. Squirting burseras tend to have more volatile chemical mixtures dominated by one or two monoterpenes while non-squirting burseras have mixtures involving sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. However, larvae reared on lettuce, regained full protection when their shields were removed and replaced with host-derived shields. Chemical analyses of the squirting Bursera schlechtendalii black bars and the non-resin releasing Bursera biflora white bars.
Perhaps the link to terpene squirting provides a clue.
SERNEC – Bursera schlechtendalii
S is the Simpson index of chemical dominance lower values of S correspond to increased chemical diversity; see text for details. The volatile compounds found in the leaves of Artemisia annua differ depending on whether biotypes have glandular trichomes or not Tellez et al. Email alerts New issue alert. Bursera species often produce complex mixtures containing many individual compounds, often belonging to several terpenoid types.
Thus, schlevhtendalii required liquid state of resins may determine the high monoterpene fraction in squirting species of Bursera. Therefore, although this beetle species is able to disarm the high pressure resin defense of its host, the plant compounds are ingested and excreted in the fecal shields. When such plants are damaged, there is an immediate release of fluids from injured tissues, often in copious quantities.
You schlechtenvalii help Schlschtendalii by expanding it. Blepharida feeding on squirting plants have responded evolutionarily by cutting the resin canals, which often makes them more susceptible to predation. The first category includes a variety of substances that are toxic, repellent, or that render plant tissues indigestible to animals.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bursera. Bursera schlechtendalii and Bursera biflora are representative of the squirting and non-squirting syndromes respectively. In the second category are a series of physical barriers to avoid being eaten. The genus diversified in the tropical dry forests of Mexico where about 80 species occur and about 70 are endemic Rzedowski and Kruse, ; Becerra and Venable, a, b. They are native often byrsera many species endemic to the Americasfrom the southern United States south through to northern Argentinain tropical and warm temperate forest habitats.
Trenching and vein-cutting behaviors have been reported for lepidopterans, orthopterans and coleopterans, and there is a correlation between resin canal organization and method of deactivation by insects Dussourd and Denno, Blepharida species that feed on burseera, chemically more complex plants do not obtain the indirect benefit of protection from their hosts and have developed an alternative behavioral defense.
These beetles also compensate for their higher risk of predation by utilizing the defensive compounds present in the plant against their own predators. Studies dealing with either one of these two kinds of defenses typically assume they are independent of each other and that their actions on herbivores are additive Dussourd and Denno, ; Farrell et al.
Thus, biotypes that rely on both mechanical and chemical defenses have more volatile chemical mixtures, while biotypes that depend solely on chemical protection have more complex and less volatile wchlechtendalii combinations. These plants are also susceptible to specialized insects that can deactivate canals by cutting veins or trenches Becerra, b. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. Squirt strength was documented by cutting 5 to schlechhtendalii leaves on multiple individuals per species with nail clippers.
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About one third of the Mexican Bursera species are able to squirt resins when injured, while another third releases little or no fluids.